Dymaxion Developments

Morphological Timeline of the Dymaxion Dwelling Machine

4D Dymaxion House (1927–1931)

Buckminster Fuller’s first versions of the Dymaxion House were five-person family homes, with hexagonal floor plans and a central supporting mast. The mast was anchored to the ground by its base and offered the option of having an elevator installed within its frame.  Although the living quarters of these homes only occupied one floor, they were raised off the ground by one story. In his first take on the house, the ground level constituted of a deck with an observation, garden, and recreation area, but by the time of the 1930 Dymaxion House it had evolved into a more basic trim yard. 

Hexagonal Plan of the 4D House

Altogether, the home weighed around 6000 pounds or 3 tons, and provided 1600 square feet of liveable floor space. All the versions produced between this time were constructed of durable materials – mainly aluminum. Fuller favoured aluminum for its natural qualities, recyclability, and lack of maintenance or painting. And even though the material had a high energy cost, it lasted indefinitely, outweighing this minimal drawback.  The houses were designed so that each of their components was light enough to be carried by one man, ensuring comfortable and easy assembly, as well as transportation.

Bucky explaining his first Dymaxion design in 1929

The mechanics of the house involved the use of tension and compression in a web system – a novel structure based on traction cables. The mast acted as a circular support with compression-subjected tubular rings suspended from a tripod atop it. Consequently, all the elements of the building were suspended from above, and did not rest upon supports from below, like in most dwelling units. Their structural system was very similar to that of a suspension bridge. The mast was commonly referred to as the central aluminum core, in which there was all the mechanical equipment and the entire support structure for the roof and floor. Thanks to this structural system, heavy and big building materials often used for support were avoided, and the house was very light, cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and easily constructible and moveable in comparison to other structures.

Hexagonal plan illustrating the synergy and tensegrity of the 4D design through triangular forms
Other common features of these homes were the inclusion of felt and septic tanks, heat and power generators, air pumps and air filters, and water retrieved from an artesian well. The homes were also all organized using triangular shapes – they had floating floors of triangular inflated panels, optional triangular elevators, triangular curtains (pulled up from the floor and down from the ceiling), triangular window panels, and a triangular system of tension dispersion. This was one of Buckminster’s concepts, in which he developed a grid ranging out from the central mast, that would disperse the tension of the structure it held as optimally as possible, ensuring a stable building that was also lightweight and did not require any other supports. The homes were also all demountable and easily transportable, meant to stand against various climates without harm, and be quickly produced and constructed.
The first of these very similar prototypes – the 1927 Dymaxion House – had an estimated cost of $3000, or 25 cents/pound.  In consequent iterations, the house was continually designed so that it could be bought for the same price as a car. As mass production gained popularity, the 1930 Dymaxion House version was also built to be able to be mass produced on an assembly line in the same manner as vehicles.
The design of the Dymaxion House mainly progressed between 1927 and 1931 by gaining feature slike greater energy-efficiency, self-ventilation, self-temperature regulation, and self-cleaning. One of its goals seemed to be to become wholly independent and be able to function without the need of outside energy or services. By the time Fuller designed his second 4D House in 1928, the home generated its own power, took care of its own waste, and had an independent communication system.

Section and plan illustrating the 4D tension system
This second version also included an inflated tubular metal structure, with transparent vacuum-sealed outer wall panels of recycled vegetable materials, and a spongy inflated bladder floor. All of these features made it more lightweight, sustainable, and sanitary than before. The 1928 version also incorporated pneumatic partitions, inflatable furniture, glass tables suspended by neon-lit cables, a moulded bathroom unit with atomized spray, photo-electrically controlled revolving storage units, and pneumatic silver balloon silk doors, non-existent in the earlier 1927 Dymaxion House. The efficiency of features like climate control and heat distribution also increased with the arrival of new technologies, to the point where in the last iteration bed sheets were not a comfort requirement.

Painting of the third Dymaxion House by Anne Hewlett Fuller (1932)

With time, Fuller also included the use of mirrors and dimmers to light the entire house with a single source, and installed a filtered ventilation system into the home. Wanting to minimize housework, he developed a washer and dryer system that automatically put clothes away, working on details that would make the house as efficient to the user as possible.
In his third iteration, Fuller slightly altered the structure by adding clad double-panel vacuum glazed walls. To further develop the sustainability of his design, fuller gradually added a gardening area on the balcony surrounding the main floor.
Fuller decided to return to this version of the Dymaxion House after experimenting with the towers described below, as people were more familiar with the structure of a one story residential home, and weren’t as thrown off by its abstraction.

4D Tower (1928)

Buckminster Fuller designed the 4D Tower in the version of both a 12-floor, 8100 square foot, and 25-floor hexagonal building. He intended the 4D Tower to be transported by air and assembled within the span of a single day. The building had only one entrance, optimizing resident security. Spatially, it was organized so that the main living quarters were near the top of the structure, surrounded by cleaner air and a better view. The base of the building housed a swimming pool, which helped stabilize the base of the mast used to anchor the entire structure – as with his earlier Dymaxion House designs.

Painting of the 4D Tower (1928)

The 4D Tower was constructed out of plastic and aluminum, and similarly to the 4D Houses was very light in weight. One of Fuller’s undeniable objectives in these designs was to create housing that was as lightweight as possible, and so within the two decades during which he developed the Dymaxion Dwelling Machine, his consequent prototypes took advantage of the availability of lighter materials and structural systems that did not require sturdy, and heavy, support.

Elevation illustrating the central mast
In terms of sustainability, the tower maximized daylight by projecting sunray light through the mast and bouncing it off mirror and prisms inside the apartments. The 4D Tower also had its own water tanks, septic systems, and clean energy sources. The tower had a windmill or turbine on top of its central mast, which was to generate electricity for the structure.

Elevation illustrating the tower's streamlined form
Highlighted area indicates the communal living area at the top of the tower

It also had inflatable flagstone apartments (airtight sealed units) on each level complete with inflatable doors that provided optimal sanitation and a dust free environment.   As mentioned in the biographical section of this blog, the death of Buckminster’s daughter on account of a preventable disease initiated his desire to create clean environments, as seen in the 4D Tower and  iterations of the Dymaxion home.
Other features of the tower were its centralized air circulation system, used for ventilation and heating, and a vacuum and compression air system used for automatized cleaning of the tower. Its streamline faring qualities eliminated the need for any insulation system, avoiding environmental harm and extra weight.

Light Tower (1928)

The Light Tower’s main distinguishing feature from the earlier 4D Tower was that it had 10 floors as opposed to 12, and was 55 meters tall. It was also constructed out of glass and steel, instead of the earlier plastic and aluminum. One of Fuller’s most radical ideas introduced in this phase of the design was the use of zeppelins for the maintenance and installation of the building. According to his calculations, the edifice could be carried, wholly assembled, 275 meters under the airship. He envisioned that zeppelins would install the tower into its location by dropping a bomb to form the foundation and then dropping the building directly into the hole. Once standing, the building would also be maintained and services by zeppelin crews, which would fly to one of its stories whenever needed. He also saw the building as portable, able to be lifted and taken anywhere by the zeppelin that brought it to its current location. If it were not for its tension (as opposed to compression) system of construction, the structure would not have been theoretically light enough to make zeppelin transportation possible.
Similarly to its earlier version, it was self-sufficient in power, heat, and sewage disposal, and could also be installed in one day. In addition, it had a slender mast supporting all of its floors through the common tension system, and was also very lightweight. The tower’s components hung with triangular floors and facades from this mast, in a similar arrangement to the rest of Fuller’s Dymaxion designs.
The height of both the towers also supported Fuller’s idea of conservative design, by minimizing the land needed for each building. Fuller also incorporated a windbreaker around the tower, which eliminated the heat loss caused by the drag of wind passed the building and acted as an insulating barrier.

Dymaxion Mobile Dormitory/Worker Shelter (1932)

The Dymaxion Mobile Dormitory was an iteration of the Dymaxion House designed for migrant farm and factory workers in new industrialized towns, during the 1930s, as Russia was undergoing industrialization. Their design was inspired by Fuller’s visit to Ural mountains, in which crude conditions were universal, metal was scarce, and wood was the main local material. Fuller decided to build a shelter for these workers that would use the materials they had to work with and offer them the more comfortable lifestyle they deserved.
The shelter was built of basic materials, with floor netting made of fibre rope, packed grass insulation, and compressed sawdust hardboard for surfacing. The walls were hollow operable ‘petals’, covered with fabric panels, and constructed in a similar manner to earlier aircraft.

Elevation of the Worker's Shelter highlighting its rudder
Similarly to the earlier Dymaxion dwelling units, Fuller used aluminum here as well, this time as a surface materials used to distribute diffused sunlight and radiant heat achieved by the skylight and white-flame kerosene air burner at the masthead. Consequently, the shelter also used Fuller’s developed concept of a central mast support and suspensions system, working off the same principles as the previous houses and towers. It also maintained the same hexagonal shape and triangular organization system.  As with earlier designs, Fuller also worked to make the shelter efficient and self-serviced by using the compressed air in the worker’s tractors to power the heating and lighting units and to carry fuel to the water tanks.
The shelter had a ruddered roof-peak vent, used to control air circulation when the petals were closed. It also introduced some of Fuller inventions, which he carried onto consequent designs like the fog guns1 and packaging toilets2.
1.     The fog guns were used to wash dishes, clothes, and people. The mixed jet compressed air (from the tractors) mixed with small amounts of finely atomized water to blast dirt off various surfaces, without using any soap. Effectively they were able to greatly minimize the use of water, utilizing only 1 cup of water for a shower.
2.     The packaging toilets were another one of Fuller’s attempts to make his structures completely self-reliant and sustainable. Outraged by the idea of wasting drinkable water to flush, Fuller developed this water-free toilet with the help of appliance engineer, Don Moore. The toilet sealed excrements into plastic bags, eliminating disease-carrying aerosols associated with regular flushing, addressing his desire to create sanitary living environments. The bags were to be taken by a collective service, and their contents used for compost, feedstock, mechanical processes, and methane gas fuel. The urine would be caught and stored separately, and the whole situation was to be very neat, clean, sanitary, and completely odour free. The collective services’ frequency would also automatically increase with the growth of the inhabitants or family. Although seemingly well thought out, this invention of Fuller’s never came to life as the multimillion collective facilities were never formed or produced.

Elevation of the Worker's Shelter highlighting the feature wall panels

Dymaxion Bathroom (1936)

Although not a rendition of the Dymaxion House on its own, the Dymaxion Bathroom was an invention that impacted Fuller’s future designs significantly in plan, and clearly reflected his many intentions in this project.

Axonometric of the bathroom highlighting the rounded corners
The bathroom included the packaging toilet and fog gun invented by Fuller in his preceding design of the Worker Shelter, and was mainly compiled for four pieces. It was either constructed of four rustproof sheet metal stampings or moulded plastic, and enclosed 1.5 square meters of space. The individual pieces were very light and small, able to be carried by two people each, and were bolted together in a permanent and watertight manner when installed. They were narrow enough to fit through a door and up a staircase. The total weight of the unit was 250 pounds.
Other than the fog gun and packaging toilet, the bathroom also had a pre-plumbed sink, shower (which used the fog gun), and tub. As a complete system, it did not require any separate appliances.

Removable bathroom system

All corners and edges had a radii of at least 5cm, for easy cleaning and therefore elevated sanitation. The bathroom was heated by electric heating strips in sound-deadened walls, keeping the room warm and dry – avoiding mould and bacteria growth. The bathroom also had a downdraft ventilation and fan system that sucks air down and below the sink, pulling steam and fumes out of the facility. The mirror was placed optimally inside the medicine cabinet door, avoiding fog.
The bathroom was useable by two people at one time, with a factory-installed manifold piping system separating the tub-shower area from the sink and commode section of the space.
The tub was deep enough for therapeutic purposes and fun, but also raised high enough for the easy bathing and cleaning of children. Similarly, the sink nozzle had a rim nearest the user, so that it would not splash people’s clothes.
The bath had a floor drain that prevented potential floods and contributed to easy mopping.

Dymaxion Deployment Unit (1940)

Visually, the Dymaxion Deployment Unit mainly consisted of two adjacent units of different sizes and uses that both resembled the Butler Company metal grain bins with added round windows, after which they were modeled. Although, unlike Fuller’s previous designs, the structure rather traditionally rested on the ground, it also had a temporary central mast, from which the edifice was suspended and kept stable. Also, unlike the previous versions, the unit was not hexagonal but instead circular, incorporating new technologies in curved wall production, developed by the aircraft industry of WWII. 

Elevation highlighting the curved roof panels

Plan of the Deployment Unit highlighting the new circular form
The building was meant to be a small, one-family house, mass-produced for the time of WWII. It was requested for Fuller to design by the WWII British War relief Organization, as an emergency shelter for their people against the German bombing in British cities. The houses were to affordably cost $10 per square foot, and were constructed of curved sheets of galvanized corrugated iron, which again used the same manufacturing methods as airplanes were being made in during this time. Its cost-effectiveness was mainly provided by the use of pre-existing assembly lines, tools, and factories. As with his earlier designs, Fuller carried on the lightening strategies, which utilized mirrors and dimmers for sustainable distribution of daylight. The structure was very strong, and had a sloped roof that allowed wartime debris to easily slide off and avoid harm inside. It shape allowed for passive air circulation, which kept it cool in hot circumstances. Carried from his previous designs, Fuller gave the unit a rooftop air vent, which would keep the air clean and unobstructed for its inhabitants. The mast to which all the pieces of the structure were attached made it easy to assemble as well as take apart.

Interior Views of the Deployment Unit (1940)
The main area of the shelter consisted of a ­­­­living room and two bedrooms, while the secondary, smaller, unit had a kitchen, Dymaxion bathroom, and spare bedroom. 
However, in the end, because Britain was spending so much money on weapons and other defensive products the never actually produced these shelters for their people. Fuller’s design was instead used by the US Army’s radar crews in the same war.

Dymaxion Dwelling Machine (1944): Wichita House Prototype

They Dymaxion Dwelling Machine was the prototype from which the Wichita House was built. Fuller designed the home so that it had a changeable floor plan to suit the needs of every user, which was taken advantage of and gone beyond in the construction of the Wichita House.
Painting of the Dymaxion House by Anne Hewlett Fuller
The Dymaxion Dwelling Machine had a circular floor plan (as opposed to the earlier hexagonal). It had bands of windows on thin-skinned walls, an airspace between the ground and the main floor, and a ventilator on its roof. Its main shape was domed, creating a structure that reduced the need of materials. Its round corners, like in the Dymaxion bathroom, maximized sanitation by ensuring optimal cleaning and stopping bacteria from being trapped in corners.
The housed weighed 3000 pounds (in comparison to the earlier 6000), even though its size did not greatly decrease from that of other, previous Dymaxion homes.

Axonometric of the Dwelling Machine

The Central mast was 22 feet tall, and the ventilator that formed part of the roof was 18 feet in diameter. Overall, the building’s diameter was 36 feet. It had a floor area of 1017 square feet and a volume of 12,000 cubic feet.
The house had two bedrooms, a living room, kitchen, two Dymaxion bathrooms, a revolving wardrobe on a vertical axis, and laundry unit. All the utilities were grouped around the mast.
The house was prefabricated and assembled on site. It was constructed so that no single part weighed more than 10 pounds, and had an assembly feasible for one person alone. When it was built, in the mid 1940’s, the cost of a unit was $6,500 each.

Plan highlighting the divisions between rooms
Only two prototypes were ever constructed, and both were purchased and combined with one another and additional pieces by William Graham in 1948. The prototypes were the Barwise prototype – made in 1945 – and the Danbury prototype – made in 1946. Graham used Fuller’s prototypes to construct a two-story house of his own in Wichita, where he lived with his family for the rest of his life. In 1992, the house was disassembled and reconstructed in the Henry Ford Museum as closely to Fuller’s intentions as possible, where it stands today. It has since undergone restoration programs and maintenance. Graham’s purchase of the home occurred, as described elsewhere in the blog, because of Fuller’s unwillingness to finalize his design and the consequent failure of the mass housing’s success on the public post-war market.


All the materials used to build the Dwelling Machine prototypes were deemed permanent and required no maintenance.  It was fabricated almost entirely out of aircraft industry aluminum, taking the advantage of a surplus of such materials and factories during this time. Unfinished aluminum panels were specifically used for the walls and roof, while the windows were constructed out of plastic. The bathroom, structure cage, deck, inner and outer skins , foundation, and doors were also all made of this material.
The house was made using aircraft industry production – specifically the factory, engineering personnel, and tools, of the Beech Aircraft company. Aluminum was a prime material for Fuller to use, on account of its lightness and strength.
Aluminum first became available as a construction tool in 1855, and entered mass production at the start of the 1900’s. Its production hugely increased during the Second World War, on account of its popularity in the aircraft industry, around the time the Dymaxion Dwelling Machine was constructed. Although the production of aluminum was energetically and economically negatively significant, its performance outweighed this in Fuller’s eyes. Another downfall of the material was its lack of stiffness in relation to iron or steel, which is why Fuller decided to use steel for the central mast, which was to bear the entire weight and tension of the structure. Apart from being light and strong, aluminum is also rust resistant (meaning low maintenance) and easily manipulated in various construction methods – allowing for an easy formation of Fuller’s curved shapes. It is also recyclable and its chemical properties allow for adequate cooling and ventilation.
The central mast was made of stainless steel. The prominent roof ventilator was made out of aerodynamic sheet metal.
The house itself was shipped in reusable stainless steel shipping tubes, transportable by truck anywhere in the country.


Structurally, it integrated tensile members within the pitch of its roof, and had criss-crossing elements with inherent resistance, showing the beginning signs of his geodesic strut frame. The many spokes keep the rim from bending outward any further while the load is suspended by central vertical spokes. The roof was shaped like an umbrella, and had a lightweight skin covering curved panels underneath, just as airplanes also had in their structures.

Elevation highlighting the curved roof

Elevation highlighting the windows wrapping around the structure
Similarly to all other Dymaxion houses, the Dwelling Machine had a central mast and utilized the principles of tension and suspension to keep whole and stable.
The round shape of the building minimized heat loss and material use, making its structure both environmentally and economically beneficial.
Based on his time spent in the army, it is speculated that Fuller’s design objectives, of creating a building that was light, mobile, and used materials to their prime effectiveness, was influenced by his time amongst ships and planes while in service.
The main structure consisted of steel elements like the vertical mast (made of seven tubes), tension cables, tubular rings that formed the outer shape, and aluminum floor base. The shell of the house was made of aluminum sheets, plastic windows, and a plywood floor deck atop aluminum beams.
As with almost all earlier iterations of the design, the structure was elevated above the ground, anchored only to it by tensile wires, its main form resting on a foundation plate above ground level, held steady by the mast.

Other Innovative Features

The house was cooled and heated by natural means, and generated its own power. It was earthquake and storm-proof, thanks to its shape and suspension system.  Its stability was also contributed to by the vent on its roof, which regulated air pressure inside the building.
The ventilator on the roof of the building worked by rotating like a wind tale, creating a low-pressure zone which opened the ventilator tail, and pulling out air from the house, effectively air conditioning the house in a natural manner. When the ventilator drew in outside air, the windows became inoperable, ensuring an efficient ventilation process.
As in the previously invented Dymaxion Bathroom, this home also used downdraft ventilation to draw dust to the baseboards and through filters, eliminating the need for vacuuming and dusting, and creating a more sanitary, clean environment.
Another feature was the revolving shelves and rotating closets, which brought your clothes to you.
The house also had adjustable sun-blinds on windows and natural cork floors.
Meant to be easily assembled and reassembled, the house had systems that firmly fit together without the need of glue or nails, with the deck flooring as an example. Altogether the building had approximately 2000 parts. It was designed so that its layers were distinct from one another and could easily be formed and then combined – divided into main categories of the structure, shell, partitions, and installations. Thanks to this, the building was also easily reparable, as a single part could be exchanged without at all impacting any other features.
The house also had carlins that collected, filtered, and recycled water.

Wichita House (1946)

When Graham converted the prototypes of Fuller’s Dymaxion Dwelling Machine, he made many significant changes to the inventor’s design. Graham built the house on a 600 acre site near Rose Hill, Kansas, along a steep waterfront in a rural setting. He abandoned the idea of suspending the structure by the mast over the ground, and instead added a basement floor and permanent foundation. The family was also bothered by the eerie noises the metal frame of the house made every time its temperature changed, which was solved by the addition of the insulation system. Graham also took away Fuller’s moving-part design innovations like the o-volving closet, in favor of more traditional furniture.The house retained the circular form of its prototypes, but made more changes like the elimination of the rotating ventilator that so significantly embodied Fuller’s concept of efficient, sanitary, and self-reliant design. The family was also bothered by the eerie noises the metal frame of the house made every time its temperature changed, which was solved by the addition of the insulation system. Graham also took away Fuller’s moving-part design innovations like the o-volving closet, in favor of more traditional furniture.Over the years, Graham also added a porch and a building extension, completely grounding a structure with an initial objective to be easily transportable and reconstructable at any location. Although Fuller’s Dymaxion House was an undoubted success in the world of science and technology, the machine failed to appeal and be embraced by its intended users.

Standard of Living Package (1948)

The Standard of Living Package was Fuller’s concept of a home that would unfold out of almost nothing. The design no longer had any significant architecture, but dealt more with elusive geometries of broadcast networks. Because the idea was so far from anything materialistic and substantial, the Standard of Living Package does not have any concrete recordings of form, geometry, or layout. It is briefly described as a core set of travelling equipment for sustaining domestic life, which could unfold in any place. Fuller envisioned that once the home was unfolded, a helicopter would airlift a Skybreak dome that would be placed over the house, protecting the inhabitants from weather, but not breaking their connection with the outdoors. This project embodied the direction of Fuller’s evolution of the Dymaxion home, highlighting his vision of a house that was optimally light, transportable, and installable in any location.

Interior and Exterior Axonometrics of the Standard of Living Package

General Statements

All the forms of Buckminster Fuller’s Dymaxion House relied on the leverage and tension system of a central mast and surrounding triangle-organized structure. The houses also commonly utilized the latest technological developments, used the minimum amount of material possible in relation to current availability, were easily assembled and transported, had minimal costs, and were built to resist climactic stresses.
Upon inspecting the stages of his design, there is an obvious shift from solid object to a lighter structure, until materiality is completely abandoned and the house becomes a compact mobile package of equipment.
His other common goals seemed to be to create a structure with minimum surface area and the last amount of material, referencing his movement towards more circular forms with the development of technology. This was driven by his concept of doing more with less, and conserving the world’s resources in everything we produced. For these reasons, the Dymaxion houses are not especially luxurious or spacious, but instead provide comfortable living in a minimal square footage. He also wanted to create housing that was standardized, and consequently cheap, on account of the massive fabrication of identical units. It is further apparent that his designs were not meant to impress in aesthetics, but instead were meant to act as the backdrop to the lives of their users, making their lives as efficient and comfortable as possible, seen in features like the self-cleaning bathroom and serviceable closet. Transportation was another clear factor in the design of these homes, as well as versatility in the aspect of location and climate.

Change in Shape

The common form and shape of the Dymaxion housing inventions was driven by Fuller’s idea of following nature in forming a structure that revolved around a central point (just as our universe does), and take advantage of the triangle’s strength in construction by creating a hexagonal form. This use of triangles and tetrahedrons was developed into a practical system of geometry and mathematics he called synergetics.
Synergetics is commonly referred to as the study of systems with a strong regard of total system behaviour, and the function of interlinked components, just as Fuller did in building structures whose entire stability depended on the central mast, and from which everything was linked in a radiating triangle grid. All structure built under this theory were formed the inside out – evolving around a central mast, which supported the entire structure, and straying outward in a triangular grid. In comparison to other shapes, triangles were known to distribute weight and volume much more evenly over a given area, therefore creating a stronger and more stable structure. The repetition of the triangular grid also aided Fuller in his desire to create standardized living structures, as the components could be constructed in similar proportions and geometries based on this outline, lowering manufacturing cost and elevating its ease.

Plan of the Dymaxion prototype highlighting the rounded corners
All the materials Fuller used were utilized in their optimal state of tension – as opposed to a less efficient compressive application. The central mast was the only loadbearing part of all the houses, and the rest was supported by tensile cables and held rigid by compression rings. This system, which dealt separately with tension and compression, became known as tensegrity – formed by tensional integrity. In short tensegrity is a structural principle in which compression and tension are isolated, and the compressed members (bars or struts) do not interact with one another, and the pre-stressed tensioned components (cables or tendons) define the system’s spatial confines.
In general, the Dymaxion House began as a hexagon but developed into a circular form, once technology in the construction of framework and coverings allowed it to do so. As described in other portions of this blog, the structure was held back from taking the optimal circular form by an inability to form double curved surfaced, but once the construction of such components was invented in other fields (mainly aircraft), Fuller used the development to his advantage and replaced the hexagon in his own design.

Authored by: Will Fu, Justyna Maleszyk and Isabel Ochoa

Edited by: Isabel Ochoa